Wawn Family Records - Part 3
CHAPTER III. 1401—1450.
N 1401, the subsidy of 8d. in the pound on wool, due to the King, was paid by John Waghen, for three cloths without grain, value 60s., sent by the ship of William Johnson, called Christopher of Camfer, which sailed from Hull on the I2th day of June. a
On the 7th April, 1401, at Westminster, a commission was granted to William Fulthorpe, chivaler, Thomas Graa of York, Master Alan Newerk, Thomas Stanley of York, Nicholas Warthill of York and William Waghen of York, to enquire of the lands of the hospital of St. Nicholas, in the suburb of York, which had been alienated to divers persons and rents and services due to the hospital which had been withdrawn and concealed.b
By his will dated the penultimate day of September, 1402, John Couper, carpentar and citizen of York, desired burial in the cemetery of the church of Holy Trinity in Gotheromgate, York, and gave to Sir John de Awne one small two edged sword inlaid with silver (unam parvam spatam argento stipatam) and to the said Sir John one bow with vj arrows and appointed the said Sir John de Awne one of the executors. The will was proved the 4th October, I402.c According to the Obituary of the Guild of the Corpus Christi, York, Dom. Johannes Aghne died in 1410/11.d
On the 1st March, 1403/4, at Westminster, a commission was granted to Master John Suthewell, Master Alan Newerk, Master
(a) Yorkshire Arch. Soc. (Record Series), Vol. LXIV, Early Yorkshire Woollen Trade, Extracts from Customs Accounts for Hull, p. 27.
(b) Cal. Pat. Rolls, I Henry IV, Pt. VI. This William Waghen was the lawyer of York.
(c) Vol. 3, fol. 84. The will is printed in Surtees Society, Testamenta Eboracensia, Pt. I, p. 290.
(d) Surtees Society, Vol. LVII, Guild of the Corpus Christi, p. 242.
William Hurworth, Hugh Ardern, esquire, William Waldeby and William Waghen, to hear and determine an appeal by John Cartere of Scardeburgha against a judgment of Master Simon Sydenham, doctor of laws, lieutenant or commissary general of Richard, lord of Gray, admiral in the north, in a case concerning the sale of a moiety of a ship or crayer called Marie of Scardeburgh to John de Neweton and John Edon, mariners, and in an action of account for the repair of the same between the said John de Neweton and John Edon, plaintiffs, and the said John Cartere, defendant.b
Unfortunately, however, William Waghen did not live to serve on the commission and, in fact, on the day the commission was sealed at Westminster his will was proved at York. The will is as follows:—
In the Name of God Amen the third day of the month of February in the year of our Lord a thousand four hundred and three I William Waghen citizen and lawyer c of York publish my will in this manner In the first place I give and leave my soul to God Almighty to the Blessed Mary and to all the saints and my body to be buried in the church of Holy Trinity in Goodramgate according to the direction of the warden of the same church Likewise I leave in the name of my mortuary my best bed to be taken for my bodyd Likewise I leave xv pounds of wax to be burnt around my body on the day of my burial in five serges e Likewise I leave to my parish chaplain vjd. To the parish clerk iiijd. and to the under-clerk ijd. Likewise I leave one torch to the great altar of my parish church Likewise I wish that Elene my wife pay or cause to be paid my debts in so far as my goods may extend and my debts having been paid as aforesaid I direct that the said Elene shall have the residue And lastly I desire that the said Elene shall have the care and custody of my sons and daughters as God disposing she may be able to do Likewise 1 ordain and constitute the said Elene my wife my executrix These being witnesses Sir William de Eston and Sir Thomas de Sutton chaplains and others In witness of these presents being
(a) In ancient records Scarborough is called Scardeburgh. There is the administration at York of John Carter of Scardeburgh, esquire, dated the 3rd October, 1432 (Vol. 2, fol. 618).
(b) Cal. Pat. Rolls, 4 Henry IV, Pt. II. The will of John Neuton of Whitteby, dated the 9th October, 1429, and proved the 31st October, 1429 (Vol. 2, fol. 569) is at York.
(c) The words here are legis peritus, i.e. expert of the law or skilled in the law, he having been called to the Bar. See the will of his father, Simon de Waghen, ante p. 26.
(d) The words, "pro corpore meo talliato," are translated "to be taken for my body." Literally they mean "having been taxed (or, having been cut off) for my body." (Vide note (a) p. 29 ante.)
(e) Fr. cierge, a wax taper or candle used in religious rites.
my will I have affixed my seal Given at York the day and year aforesaid.
(Probate of the said will granted at York the 1st March 1403/4. )a
In connection with the Pageant of Moses and Pharaoh held in 1403 an agreement was made between John Touche of York and William de Easby and John de Wenteworth of York, mercers, before William Frost, mayor, that the said William and John should deliver to the said John Touche a bond for 80l. made by Richard de Wakefeld, mercer, William de Horneby, merchant, and John de Waghne, mercer, to William and John with their letter of attorney to John Touche; the bond being conditioned that if William and John save John Touche harmless as to all debts to Richard Wakefeld and his companions incurred by the said John Wentworth and John Touche when they were companions together, John Touche should restore the said Bond and letter of attorney to William and John.b
On the I3th December, 1403, proof of age was taken at Stilyngflete of John Deyncourt, chivaler, deceased, at which John Waghen (then aged 55 years) deposed that he remembered that the said John was born at Midelham on the last day of February, 5 Richard II [1381/2] and baptised on the 1st March in the church there, because on the same day John Coupland, son of William Coupland, was on the said last day of February, 21 years ago, promoted to priest's orders at York, as appears by the letters thereof.c
The will of Hugo de Waghen is as follows:—
In the Name of God Amen the second day of the month of November one thousand four hundred and five I Hugo de Waghen cuttiler of the City of York of sound mind and good memory but sick in body publish my will in this manner
(a) From the original probate entry in abbreviated latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 3, fol. 103.
(b) Surtees Society, Vol. CXX, York Memorandum Book, p. 251. The purport of this transaction is not very clear, but it appears to have been some sort of indemnity for the expenses of the Pageant.
(c) Yorkshire Arch. Soc. (Record Series), Vol. LIX, Yorkshire Inquisitions, p. 29. Middleham is nine miles west of Bedale, in Wensleydale. Stillingfleet is six miles south of York. The deceased was the son of William, Lord Deincourt, and married Johanna, daughter and heiress of Robert, Lord Grey of Rotherfield and Bedale, who was seised of one fee in Stelyngflet, Moreby and Drynghous, worth yearly, cum acciderit, 12d.
In the first place I give and leave my soul to God Almighty and to the Blessed Mary and to all the saints and my body to be buried in the church burial ground of St. Michael the Archangel in Berefride in the close of the church of St. Peter at York and my best garment having been according to custom given and taken for my body for my mortuary Likewise I leave xv pounds of wax to be burnt around my body at the time of my funeral and on the day of my burial Likewise I leave for tithes and offerings if any have been forgotten vjs. viijd. And to the chaplain of my parish of Berefride ijs. and to the parish clerk of the same parish xijd. and to the under-clerk vjd. Likewise I leave to the great work of the church of the Blessed Peter a at York iijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to Agnes my sister xxs. to be taken of my goods Likewise I leave to the lights of St. Nicholas and St. Katrine in Berefride iij pounds of wax The residue of all my goods of whatever kind they may be and wherever situate shall be used for payment of my debts and after payment of all my debts I give and leave it to Agnes my wife that she may at her free will dispose of the same for masses for my soul and for payment of my debts and in other pious works as she shall consider to be expedient And for the faithful execution of my aforesaid will I ordain make and constitute as my executors my said wife Agnes John de Wylthon cuttiler and Alice the wife of Adam de Brigk Done and had at the dwellinghouse of the said Hugo in the street of Petergate the day and year aforesaid.
(Proved at York the 4th November 1405 by Agnes the relict of the deceased.) b
The will of Matilda Waghen follows:—
In the Name of God Amen I Matilda the wife of John Waghen of Kyngeston upon Hull being sound in my mind the thirteenth day of August in the year of our Lord a thousand four hundred and five publish my will in this manner In the first place I leave my soul to God and the Blessed Mary and to all the saints and my body to be buried in the chapelyard of the Holy Trinity in the town aforesaid Likewise I leave for my mortuary my best garment Likewise I leave to the fabric of the aforesaid chapel xs. which Katina de Bynglay owes mec Likewise
(a) York Minster.
(b) From the original probate entry in abbreviated latin at the York Probate Registry, Vol. 3, fol. 238. Adam del Bryg was a mercer living in Staynegate (now Stonegate), York, and is mentioned in the will of Master Richard de Waghen, ante p. 29. His will, wherein he is described as Adam de Brygge of York, mercer, is dated the Thursday following the feast of St. Barnabas, 1404, and was proved at York the 19th June, 1404 (Vol. 3, fol. 109). By it he gave to Hugo de Waghen xiijs. iiijd., and appointed his (testator's) wife Alice, Hugo de Waghen, William Spensar and Richard Welles to be the executors. By an Order of William Bowes, Lord Mayor of York, for the Regulation of the play of Corpus Christi, dated the 7th June, 1417, it was directed that " all the Pageants of the play called Corpus Christi shall be brought forth in Order by the Artificers of the said City, and to begin to play first at the Gates of the Priory of the Holy Trinity in Mikelgate; next, etc.; then at the door of Adam del Brygs, deceased, in Stayne-gate; etc. (Drake's Eboracum, Vol. II, p. 127.)
(c) Left no doubt in the full faith that it would be duly got in.
I leave to each Order of friars in Kyngeston aforesaid vs. Likewise I leave to John my son a silver ring Likewise I leave to Johanna my daughter one pair of beads Likewise I leave to Isabella Danyella my sister my better cloak with hood Likewise I leave to Beatrice my servant one fur of coney skins with a hood and a kerchiefb Likewise I leave to Matilda Colvyle one kyrtlec and one hood Likewise I leave to Johanna Wakefeld one kyrtle one hood and one kerchief Likewise I leave to Margaret de Benton one hood and one kerchief The residue of all my goods I give and leave to my husband and my son that they shall do with the same whatever they may consider expedient and better for my soul I constitute as my executor the aforesaid John my husband to faithfully execute my said will These being witnesses William Whitlow Richard Skefelyng and others Given the day and in the year of our Lord aforesaid.
(Proved at York the 13th October 140S)d
Next is the will of John de Waghen, carpenter, of Hull, as follows:—
In the Name of God Amen I John de Waghen carpenter of Kyngeston upon Hull sane of mind and of good memory the twelfth day of the month of August in the year of our Lord a thousand four hundred and six publish my will in this manner In the first place I leave my soul to God to the Blessed Mary and to all the saints and my body to be buried wherever God shall decree and dispose Likewise I leave for my mortuary my best garment Likewise I leave for my forgotten tithes ijs. Likewise I leave to the fabric of the chapel of Holy Trinity at Kyngeston aforesaid twenty stones of lead Likewise I leave to the Carmelite friars iijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to the Augustinian friars in the town aforesaid iijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to John the clerk xijd. Likewise I leave to John Colman xd. Likewise I give and leave to my children during their lives and the heirs of their bodies lawfully begotten by equal shares one messuage with its appurtenances in the town of Kyngeston upon Hull which said messuage I have by the grant of Sir Michael de la Pole to have and to hold the said messuage with its appurtenances to my children aforesaid and the heirs of their bodies lawfully begotten and they shall hold the same messuage upon the limitations contained in a certain Indenturee now duly
(a) The will of Isabell Danyell, late wife of Richard Danyell of Scardeburgh, dated the 17th December, 1438, was proved at York the I2th November, 1439 (Vol. 3, fol. 591), but contains no mention of the Waghen family.
(b) A kerche, or kerchief, was a cloth used to cover the head, formerly a woman's head-dress. "Upon hir hed a kerche of Valence." (Lydgate's Minor Poems, p. 47.)
(c) Kirtle, a tunic, gown or jacket. The woman's kirtle of the fourteenth century was a close-fitting dress described in Strutt, ii, 238; and the kirtle is mentioned in Launfal (233) as being laced tightly to the body.
(d) From the original probate entry in abbreviated latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 3, fol. 237.
(e) An Indenture is a deed.
executed rendering then yearly as appears in the same Indenture and if it happen them to die without heirs of their bodies lawfully begotten I desire that it shall be sold by my executors or by the executors of my executors for its true value and the money then received shall be expended in the celebration of masses and in distributing to the poor for my soul and the soul of my wife and the souls of all the faithful departed The residue of all my goods my debts having been faithfully paid I wish to be divided into two parts and one part shall be expended for the health of my soul by my executors in the celebration of masses and in distributions to the poor and the other part shall go to my children according to law And I constitute as my executors William Whetlay and Thomas Gefrayson my brother that they shall order and dispose of my goods for the health of my soul as they shall wish to answer in the day of judgment before the Great Judge And I leave to William Whetlay for his pains xls. Given at Kyngeston upon Hull the day and year aforesaid.
(Proved at York the 29th day of October 1406.)a
The will of Alice, the widow of William de Waghen of York, mercer, dated 1407/8, is as follows:—
In the Name of God Amen the twenty eighth day of the month of January in the year of the reign of King Henry the Fourth after the conquest of England the ninth I Alice de Waghen at one time the wife of William de Waghen of York mercer publish and ordain my will in this manner In the first place I leave and commend my soul to God Almighty to the Blessed Mary the Virgin and to all the Saints and my body to be buried in my parish church of Sancte Crux next to my husband Likewise I leave for my mortuary my better garment to be taken for my body Likewise I leave to the Rector of my parish church aforesaid for forgotten tithes and offerings iijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to be burnt around my body on the day of my burial xij pounds of wax Likewise I leave to the fabric of my parish church aforesaid xls. Likewise I leave for all my funeral expenses as well on the day of my burial as on the eighth day vli. Likewise I leave to one honest and fit chaplain celebrating divine offices for the soul of William de Whaghen and for my soul and for the souls of all my benefactors xxxli - Likewise I leave to the chaplain of my parish iijs. iiijd. Likewise to my parish clerk ijs. and to the under-clerk xijd. Likewise I leave to the three orders of Mendicant friars in York that is to say the Minors the Preachersb and the Augustinians xvs. to be divided between them in equal portions Likewise I leave to the Carmelite friars in York xiijs. iiijd. and to the Guild of the fraternity of the Blessed Marie in a chapel newly rebuilt near the said friars xiijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to one chaplain
(a) From the original probate entry in abbreviated latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 3, fol. 256.
(b) The Dominican, or Black Friars, were also called Preaching Friars. (See Lawbon's Religious Houses of Yorkshire, p. II.)
celebrating at the altar of Sancte Anne in the parish church of Sancte Sampson at York for ij years celebrations vjs. viijd. Likewise I leave to one chaplain celebrating at the altar of Sancte Brigide in the parish church of St. Margaret at York for two years celebrations vjs. viijd. Likewise I leave to the Guild of Saint Christopher one large goblet of murraa bound with silver and one cloak of silk for doing my obitb and making special mention of my name and the name of my aforesaid husband in their prayers offered and to be offered on festival days And further I wish that Alice my daughter if she shall survive me shall be received into the fraternity of the Guild aforesaid and that that goblet shall be blessed by the bishop and that the brethren and sisters shall drink from that goblet on festival daysc Likewise for the obit of William de Waghen and my obit to be done in my parish church for seven years for each year vjs. viijd. Likewise I leave to Alice my daughter xxx pounds in silver ij fetherbeddes iiij coddysd ij bolders iij pare sheets of lake cloth j pare blankets j pare curtyns j wine basin ij complete beds of blue j blue and red coverled iiij table napkins ij tuelle ij pieces of silver j coopef xij silver spoons iij goblets of best murra j dozen vessels of pewter garnished ij potelpottesg j quarteh ij best brass pots ij gemels i j dorlettk with ij tailpieces j large dish bound with iron l j hanging laver m ij new brass basins ij lavers j iron rod with a pair of tongs j spit j tripod j brass frying-pan j table with tristells ij arm-chairs ij chests of spruce j old matrys j par of beads and my best coffer with all contained in it j tub j trough iiij small tuells j large boll n j new dish with a well vj cushyngs j silver girdle xx ells o of linen cloth, and iiij ells of woollen cloth Likewise I leave to Cecilie Lenay
(a) Murra, a substance of which precious vases and other vessels were made. It was brought from the East and supposed to be fluor-spar, though according to Gibbon (Decl. and F. xxxi, III, 206, note), writing in 1781, it is proved to have been the porcelain of China and Japan.
(b) An obit was a mass for the soul of a deceased person celebrated annually on the anniversary of his death.
(c) Witlaff, King of Mercia, in his charter to Croyland, among other donations, enumerates the following:—"I give also for the holy service of the altar my scarlet cloak which was used at my coronation, and to the sacred ornaments of the church my gold veil, on which is sewed the sacking of Troy, to be suspended from the wall on my anniversary (if it please). I give also to the refectory my jug, gilt on every part of the exterior, and engraved with hunters and dragons fighting, and internally impressed at the four corners with the sign of the cross, which in my trouble I am accustomed to invoke. Also my table-horn, that the old men of the monastery may drink from it at holy festivals, and speak well of me, and sometimes remember the soul of the giver, Witlaff."—(Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum). These gifts were probably made lest the prophetic denunciation of the sons of Fingal against oppressors should be fulfilled:—"The bard shall forget them in song, and their tombs shall not be known."—(Vide Gill's Vallis Eboracensis, p. 156.)
(d) Cods, bags, usually perfume bags. In 1440 Sir Degreve mentions " coddys of sendall," sendal (Span, cendal) being a light thin stuff of silk or thread.
(e) I.e. towels. (f) A cup. (g) Pottle-pot, a two quart pot or tankard. The pottle is a measure still used in certain parts of England. (h) A quart pot or quart bottle; a vessel holding a quart.
(i) Gemel, a kind of finger ring (much worn in the 16th century) so constructed as to admit of being divided horizontally into two rings.
(k) Dorlot, the head-dress of net-work, sometimes enriched with jewels, worn by ladies in the middle ages. (1) This would be a large wooden dish bound with iron.
(m) Lavacrum pendens. The word lavacrum is usually translated as "a laver," which was a vessel for washing, a large basin. Enquiry does not disclose the meaning of a "hanging laver." (n) A bowl.
(o) An ell is an English measure of 45 inches, formerly commonly used in the measurement of cloth.
daughter of my sister xls. j feather bed j par of sheets j table-napkin with j tuell j cup of murra j dish j brass pot j chest in the shoppe Likewise I ordain and wish that if the aforesaid Alice and Cecilie shall die or if one of them shall die before reaching or one of them shall reach full and legal age then all the aforesaid legacies shall remain in the hands of my executors and shall be expended by them in the celebration of masses for the souls of my benefactors And if the aforesaid Cecilie shall die before she shall reach full age then her part shall go to Alice my daughter aforesaid Likewise I leave to Agnes my daughter j piece of silver iiij silver spoons one brass pot and all my remaining utensils Likewise I leave to Agnes daughter of Agnes my daughter v li in silver and j large bowl j bed of russet with hangings iiij silver spoons j fetherbed j long chest bound with iron j table-napkin ij tuells Likewise I wish and ordain that if the aforesaid Agnes shall die before she reaches full age then all her legacy shall remain with my executors and be expended by them in the manner aforesaid Likewise I leave to John my servant j bolster upon which he lies j par blanketts j par sheets j brass pot j coverlede xxs. Likewise I leave to Alice the daughter of Thomas Brene and my daughter xiijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to the four leper houses in the suburbs of York iiijs. And to each house called masondiew vjd.a Likewise I leave to John de Waghen j press Likewise I leave to Elene de Waghen the wife of John de Waghen aforesaid j silver girdle j hood and one ring Likewise I leave to Sir Thomas Etton the chaplain xxs. Likewise I leave to John de Waghen aforesaid xxs. and to Thomas Brene butcher xxs. and to each of the same three three ells of the best woollen cloth Likewise I leave and give to the aforesaid Thomas John and Thomas the residue of all my goods not bequeathed and ordain and constitute the said Thomas John and Thomas my executors that they shall order and dispose of the same for my soul or in such better manner as they shall deem expedient Given the year and day aforesaid These being witnesses Sir John de Watton chaplain John de Malton clerk of the church of Sancte Crux.
(Proved at York the 15th May 1408 by Sir John Etton chaplain and Thomas Brene.)b
In 1409/10 John Waghen and Elena his wife were elected members of the Guild of the Corpus Christi, York.c
In the inventory of the estate of Hugh Grantham of York,
(a) Maison Dieu, a name frequently given to hospitals. The word hospital (old French hôpital, Low Latin hospitale, from Latin hospitalis, stem of hospes, vulgarly 'Spital) was used in a wider signification in the Middle Ages than with us: it was appropriated (i) to houses built at popular places of pilgrimage, and along the high roads leading to them, to afford temporary shelter and food to the poorer sort of pilgrims; (ii) to houses intended for the treatment of sickness and disease; and (iii) to houses for the permanent maintenance of a certain number of poor persons, often with some condition of particular trade or locality, or otherwise. In some cases two or more of these charitable objects were combined in the same foundation. (Cutt's Diet, of the Church of England, p. 326.)
(b) From the original probate entry in abbreviated latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 2, fol. 575. Sir John Etton is given as Sir Thomas Etton in the Will.
(c) Surtees Society, Vol. LVII, The Guild of the Corpus Christi, York. He was chamberlain of York in 1413 and sheriff in 1416/7. He died 1431/2.
mason, made the 10th April, 1410, it appears amongst the debts due to the estate that John Waghen of York, cutteler, owed xls. whilst Agnes, the wife of the same John, owed xxs. for barley sold.a
In 1412 William Waghen, mercer, was elected a freeman of the city of York.b
In 1413 Henry Wawen, shipman, Thomas Waghen, the son of William Waghen, and Simon de Waghen, the son of William de Waghen, became freemen of the city of York, the two latter per patre.c In the same year John Waghen appears as one of the chamberlains of the city.d
The will of Agnes Kelynghale is dated the 1st April, 1414. She was the widow of Robert Kelynghale and by her will left:—
"To John Wawne, cutler, one white coverlet and hangings, xls. in silver and my best mazer e with a rim of silver, to Alice his wife one hanging laver, to the said John Wawne my painted tapestry, six quissins,f with j baking-board,g to Alice the daughter of the said John j dish with a well and ij silver spoons, to Agnes Wawne j dish with a well and ij silver spoons, and to Johanna Wawne ij silver spoons," and appointed the said John Wawne and William Rowlay her executors. h
In 1415, Richard Waghen, wever, was made a freeman of the city of York.i In 1377 the population of York was 13,550, and London then had only three times that number. In 1394 there were 800 weavers in York, weaving being the chief occupation of the city at that period.
On the 20th November, 1415, a writ was directed to William Waghen, Mayor and Escheator of the city of York, to take
(a) Surtees Society, Vol. XLV, Wills and Inventories, p. 49. An inventory was taken of the estate of every deceased person, shewing the assets, including book debts, of the estate and all debts due from the deceased. Hugh Grantham was a builder with a considerable business.
(b) Surtees Society, Vol. XCVI, Freemen of York, p. 116.
(c) Ibidem, pp. 118 and 119. (d) Ibidem, p. 117. (e) A maple cup. (f) Cushions.
(g) The word here is "penyburd," the meaning of which does not appear in any dictionary. "Baking-board" is the nearest meaning that can be supplied. The will is in Latin with English words of the period interspersed.
(h) Surtees Society, Vol. II, Testamenta Eboracensia, Pt. I, p. 374. The will was proved the 17th April 1414.
(i) Surtees Society, Vol. XCVI, Freemen of York, p. 122.
inquest into the lands and goods of Richard de Duffield.a Also by a writ bearing date the last day of July, 1415, directed by Henry V, to William Waghen,b the Lord Mayor and Escheator of York, a mandate was given to seize and confiscate the estate and effects of Henry, Lord Scrope of Masham, beheaded for high treason at Southampton in the first year of his reign. The head of Lord Scrope accompanied the writ, by which it was ordered to be placed on the top of Micklegate Bar (positum super portam de Mickellyth, Ebor.) c
On the 21st September, 1416, John Waghen, mercer, and Thomas Snawdon, pewderer, were unanimously elected by the city council to serve as sheriffs for the city of York for the year thence next ensuing.d
On the 13th January, 1416/7, John Waughen and Thomas Snawedon, as sheriffs, attested a grant by Thomas Howeram to Thomas del Gare, citizen and merchant of York, of a yearly rent of 13s. 4d. from Whitsuntide, 1417, for a term of twenty years arising out of lands lying by the Ouse at York.e
(a) Yorkshire Arch. Soc. (Record Series), Vol. LIX, Yorkshire Inquisitions, p. 119. On the death intestate of a person without heirs, his estate escheats to the Crown and the Escheator was the person appointed to enquire into the heirship of persons claiming estates of deceased intestates. The word Escheator is that from which the family name of Chaytor of Croft is derived.
(b) Drake gives the name as William Alne as the Lord Mayor mentioned in this writ. His list of Lord Mayors gives "Will. Alne, merch.," for 1415, whilst Gent gives William Alne for the year 1414. There may be some doubt, however, whether William Waghen is correct, since according to Surtees Society, Vol. LVII, Guild of the Corpus Christi, p. 242:—"Richard de Alne, tanner, free in 1351, chamberlain in 1365, and bailiff of York in 1379/80, died in 1409. Will dated 30th May, 1408 (Pro. 11th May, 1409). ' Sep. in ecclesia mea parochiali Omnium Sanctorum in North-streete, Ebor., infra chorum Sancti Nicholai.' He bequeaths to his eldest son Mr. Robert de Alne, 'j doser stenyd de historia Guidonis de Warwyk' (Corp. Records, B. y, 33 b.). William de Alne, merchant, the testator's younger son, was chamberlain in 1394, and bailiff in 1395/6. When King Richard II, by his charter dated 18th May, 1396, made the city a county by itself and appointed two sheriffs instead of three bailiffs, William de Alne was one of the persons elected to that office, his colleague being Thomas de Ruston. In 1413 and 1415 he represented the city in parliament, and was chief magistrate in the last-mentioned year." As will have been seen (ante p. 24) Gent states Richard Waghen was bailiff in 1379/80, whilst Drake gives Will. Alvey as the representative in parliament for the city of York in I Henry V and 3 Henry V. It seems questionable whether there was a family of de Alne resident in the city at this period as distinct from the family of de Waghen, though it is possible, Alne being a village about 11 miles N.N.W. of York, and pronounced Awne. It is curious, however, that the de Waghen family had also been connected with the tanning trade previously in Nicholas de Waghen "skynner." (Vide p. 19 ante.)
(c) Drake's Eboracum. Vol. I, p. 190.
(d) Surtees Society, Vol. CXXV, York Memorandum Book, II, p. 52. Sheriffs were appointed instead of Bailiffs in 1397 et postea. Drake gives John Vaughan as Sheriff for 1417, whilst Gent gives Jn. Vaughan for 1416. In Surtees Society, Vol. CXXV, there are many entries of the activities of John Waghen and Thomas Snawden, "vicecomites," during their year of office as Sheriffs.
(e) Surtees Society, Vol. CXXV, York Memorandum Book, II, p. 53.
In 1419 Michael Waghen, barbour, became a freeman of the city of York.a At this period a surgeon was called a barber or barber-chirurgeon.
In an action for the recovery of a certain tenement in Stayngate in York, heard on the 7th September, 1419, John Waghen, cutler, appeared as a witness. b
In the list of incumbents of the church of Easington, Sir Robert Bedale, priest, appears as having been instituted on the 2nd September, 1419, by the patronage of the Archbishop of York. No information is given as to the date of his vacating the living, but he was followed in the incumbency by Sir John Waghen, priest, also by the patronage of the Archbishop. The date of the institution of John Waghen is not given, but the living was vacated by his death between the I2th February, 1436/7, on which day he made his will, and the 18th April, 1437, the date of probate.c
An action was heard in the Mayor's Court at York on the 5th July, 1420, in respect of a Bond, and in the course of the hearing John Waghen, mercer, was called as a witness.d
During the year 1420/21 died Helena, a member of the Guild of the Corpus Christi at York, and wife of John del Wawne, and in 1421/2 Elena Waghen, a member of the same Guild, died.e
In 1422 Thomas Waghen, chaplain, son of John Waghen, cutler, was made a freeman of the city of York, per patres.f
By a deed dated the 4th February, 1422, John Waghen,
(a) Surtees Society, Vol. XCVI, Freemen of York, p. 128. (b) Ibidem, p. 85. Stayngate, i.e. Stonegate.
(c) Poulson's Holderness, Vol. II, p. 374. The will of John Waghen is given infra. Easington is about four miles north of Spurn Head.
(d) Surtees Society, Vol. CXXV, York Memorandum Book, II, p. 94.
(e) Surtees Society, Vol. LVII, The Guild of the Corpus Christi, York. Helena had been elected a member in 1409/10. Elena was widow of William Waghen, whose will is dated the 3rd February, 1403/4 (ante, p. 34).
(f) Surtees Society, Vol. XCVI, Freemen of York, p. 132.
mercer, was one of the assigns of all the goods of Robert Curtays, the younger. a
During the year 1425/6 Henry Wawhane died a member of the Guild of the Corpus Christi at York.b
The will of John Wawan of Wakefield is as follows:—
In the Name of God Amen on the morrow of St. Paul the Apostle in the year of pur Lord a thousand four hundred and twenty seven I John Wawan of Wakefeld of sound mind but weak in body publish my will in this manner In the first place I leave my soul to God and to the Blessed Mary the Mother of God and to all the saints and my body to be buried in the graveyard of the parish church of All Saints at Wakefeld Likewise I leave for my mortuary my best horse with all its trappings Likewise I leave two pounds of wax to be burnt around my body at my funeral on the day of my burial Also I bequeath to each chaplain ministering at my funeral iiijd. and to the parochial chaplain vjd. and to each parish clerk iiijd. and to every petty clerk ministering at my funeral jd. Likewise I bequeath to the altar of the parish church at Wakefeld for tithes and offerings omitted and forgotten xld. Likewise to the fabric of the same church xld. Likewise to the service of the Blessed Mary in the same church xld. Likewise to the fabric of the Cathedral Church of St. Peter at York xld. Likewise I wish that all my moveable goods shall be divided into three parts that is to say to myself to my wife and to my son after my debts have been faithfully discharged Likewise that of my part Johannac my wife shall order and dispose of the same at her will and the same Johanna I ordain and constitute my executrix to dispose of my goods for the salvation of my soul as she shall deem best and expedient In witness of this my will I have affixed my seal these being witnesses Robert Buny William Wardale the parish chaplain William Habron and others Given the day and at the place aforesaid
(Proved at York the 21st April 1428 by the said executrix.)d
A record of great interest appears under the date the 16th November, 1428, when a pardon was granted to Thomas Stanard of Brunne, co. Cambridge, the elder, " husbondman," for not appearing before Robert Hulle and his fellows, justices of the
(a) Surtees Society, Vol. CXXV, York Memorandum Book, II, p. 112. Curtays was probably Curtis. This John Waghen, mercer, was on the council at York and one of the twenty-four certainly as late as the 5th January, 1424/5. (Ibidem, p. 158.)
(b) Surtees Society, Vol. LVII, The Guild of the Corpus Christi, York.
(c) Johanna is the Latin for Johanna, Joan or Jane. The Scotch form is Jean, but all are the same name, and the feminine form of John.
(d) From the original probate entry in abbreviated Latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 2, fol. 529. In 1546 a rent of xviijd. was paid by Thomas Wawane to the "chauntrie upon the myddest of Wakefeylde Brige in the said paroche," i.e. of Wakefield. (Surtees Society, XCII, Yorkshire Chantry Surveys, II, p. 313.) A chantry stands to this day on one of the bridges at Rotherham, co. York.
Bench of Henry VI, to answer John Purchas of Thaxtede, co. Essex, " cultellere," and Thomas Wawn of the same, " cultellere," touching a plea of debt of 10l. a A similar pardon was granted on the 4th February, 1429/30, to John Boton of Thaxtede, co. Essex, "cultellere," the plaintiffs and the debt being similar.b
On the 10th February, 1429/30, at Westminster, by Bill of the Treasurer, a patent was granted appointing, during pleasure, Simon Waghen to be controller of the great and petty customs, of the subsidy on wool, hides and wool-fells, and of the subsidy of tunnage and poundage in the port of Kyngeston-upon-Hull. c
By his will dated "die Mercurii in vigilia Concepcionis Beatae Mariae Virginis," 1429, Robert Hilton, knight, Lord of Swyne in Holdernes, appointed Sir William Wann as one of his executors."d
During the year 1431/2, John Waghen, mercer, a member of the Guild of the Corpus Christi at York, died.e
One of the witnesses of the will of John Dene, Canon of the Collegiate Church of the Blessed Peter at Ripon, dated the I5th March, 1433, was Roger Wawyn, chaplain of the chantry of the Blessed Mary and Saint Trinity in the said Collegiate church.f
The will of John Waghen, vicar of Easington, dated 1436/7, is as follows :—
In the Name of God Amen A thousand four hundred and thirty six the twelfth day of February I John Waghen vicar of the church of Esyngton being of sound mind publish my will in this manner In the first place I leave my soul to God Almighty to the Blessed Mary and to all the saints and my body to be buried in the far side of the churchyard of Esyngton and my best animal in the name of my mortuary in accordance with the custom Likewise I leave to the fabric of the church of Esyngton vjs. viijd. The residue of all my goods not bequeathed I leave to my executors whom I constitute
(a) Cal. Pat. Rolls, 7 Henry VI, Pt. I. The fact of Thomas Wawn being a cutler points to his
belonging to the York family. (b) Ibidem. (c) Ibidem.
(d) Surtees Society, Vol. XXX, Testamenta Eboracensia, p. 17. Also vide Surtees Society, Vol. II, Wills and Inventories, I, p. 79, where " Maryon Wann " is bequeathed twenty shillings by the will of Roger Thornton, the elder, an opulent merchant, of Newcastle, dated " the thursday next before yoleday in ye yeer of our lord MCCCCXXIX." It was proved the 19th January, 1429/30.
(e) Surtees Society, Vol. LVII, The Guild of the Corpus Christi, York. He was elected a member of the Guild in 1409/10.
(f) Surtees Society, Vol. XXX, Testamenta Eboracensia, Pt. II, p. 45. Quaere: whether akin to Christiana Waune of Ripon mentioned infra Chap. IV.
and ordain that is to say Nicholas Pereson chaplain and John Birde that they shall dispose of the same and do my will as they shall wish to have done before the Great Judge Given on the day and in the year aforesaid.
(Proved at York the 18th April 1437 by the said John Birde, the said Sir Nicholas Pereson having renounced probate.) a
By the will of John Ellerker the elder, of the parish of Rouley dated "die Luna post Festum Sanctae Trinitatis," 1438, the testator gives xlli. to the priests to celebrate masses for the souls of himself and "Thomas late Duke of Clarence, John Hothom, knight, senior, John Hothom, knight, junior, my father and mother, Elena Mar....... my sister, John Rosselyn and John
On the 2nd December, 1439, at Westminster, a patent was granted giving pardon to Simon Waghen of York, "mercer," for not appearing before William Babyngton and his fellows, late justices of the Bench, to answer John Plumptre, touching a plea of debt of 20l.c
In 1440 John Wawne, yoman, was made a freeman of the city of York.d
The will of John Walkan (or Wawan) of York is as follows:
In the name of God Amen the eighth day of the month of June in the year of our Lord a thousand four hundred and forty two I John Walkan being of sound mind and memory publish my will in this manner In the first place I give and leave my soul to God Almighty and to the Blessed Mary the Virgin and to all the saints and my body to
(a) From the original probate entry in abbreviated Latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 3, fol. 485.
(b) Surtees Society, Vol. XXX, Testamenta Eboracensia, Pt. II, p. 69. The testator would seem to have been a lawyer, and he mentions some distinguished clients and patrons. John Waghen was probably the Vicar of Easington, who died 1436. Rowley is a village about six miles north-west of Hull.
(c) Cal. Pat. Rolls, 18 Henry VI, Pt. I. This Simon was a grandson of Simon de Waghen, whose will, dated 1385, is given ante. John Plumptre was probably of Nottingham.
(d) Surtees Society, Vol. XCVI, Freemen of York, p. 156. The word "yeoman" will occur frequently hereafter. It is a word of doubtful origin, and according to Lloyd's Encyclopaedic Dictionary means in ordinary language a man of small estate in land, and not ranking as one of the gentry; a gentleman-farmer; a freeholder; a farmer or other person living in the country and occupying a position between that of a gentleman and a labourer. Smith (Commonwealth, bk. i, chap. xxiii) says, "I call him a yeoman whom our lawes do call Legalem hominem, a word familiar in writs and enquests, which is free man borne English, and may dispend of his owne free land in yeerely reuenue to the summe of xls. sterling. '
be buried in the church of Saint Elene in Fishergate And I leave four pounds of wax to be burnt around my body on the day of my burial And I wish that the expenses of my funeral shall be at the discretion of Robert Warthill and John Abbot Likewise I leave for my mortuary what is usual Likewise I leave to the high altar xijd. And I leave for my burial xijd. Likewise I leave to Henry Artas iijs. iiijd. Likewise I leave to Alice Lebb j bed that is to say ij matres ij blankettes ij chetes j coverlett with a pelow Likewise I leave to the canons of Saint Andrews present at my funeral xxd. Likewise I leave to Robert Warthill and John Abbott to each of them xxd. and I constitute my wife my executrix and the aforesaid Robert Warthill and John supervisors that they pay my debts to the aforesaid John The residue of all my goods not bequeathed I give to my wife and Alice my daughter Given at York the day and year aforesaid.
(Proved at York the 12th June 1442 by the executrix named in the will.)a
From about this period the country gradually became embroiled in wars with France and in civil war at home, known as the Wars of the Roses, in which latter Yorkshire was particularly a participant. b In February 1443 disturbances broke out in the city of York between the citizens and the abbot of St. Mary's owing to the demands of the latter for tithes; but what has been regarded as the true beginning of the civil war occurred in August 1453, when an engagement took place at Stamford Bridge between the Percies and the Nevilles, whilst in the same year Parliament made a grant of 20,000 archers to be raised and maintained at the cost of the shires and boroughs for six months service on demand; of these Yorkshire was required to find 713 and the city of York 152.
Besides minor engagements the battles fought in the county of York were, in 1460 the battle of Wakefield, on the 27th March, 1461, the battle of Ferrybridge, and on Palm Sunday, the 29th March, 1461, the battle of Towton, in which last-mentioned battle
(a) From the original probate entry in abbreviated Latin in the York Probate Registry, Vol. 2, fol. 39.
(b) It is not within the scope of this book to go into matters of the general history of England— or rather of the English people. It is assumed that the reader is versed in English history and, if not, this work may with advantage be read in conjunction with a perusal of a history of England, to which added interest will accrue by consulting also some of the several treatises on the dress, habits and customs of the people of England through the ages.
no less than 36,776 men were slain,a and at the commencement of which battle the Yorkist side numbered 40,660 men.
How many Wawnes and how many records have been lost as a result of the Wars of the Roses can only be left to speculation. The age itself, especially towards the close, is one of the most obscure in English history. During the whole period of these wars we have, comparatively speaking, very few contemporary records of what took place, but to the events of that stormy age—the sad calamities endured by kings—the sudden changes of fortune of great men—the glitter of chivalry and the horrors of war—
Legend and shield and effigy impart
The accumulated fame of ages flown.
(a) Leland says a Mr. Hungate gathered together a great number of the dead bodies of the slain and buried them in Saxton churchyard.
------------- Omnes illacrymabiles
Urgentur, ignotique longa
Nocte, carent qua vate sacro. – HOR.
In endless night they sleep, unwept, unknown;
No bard had they to make times their own.